Английский язык / 5 сентября 2021 в 23:21
Crimes and Criminals
Read the text and do the tasks
Classiﬁcation of Crimes
Crimes are usually classified as treason, felony, or misdemeanor. The fundamental distinction between felonies and misdemeanors rests with the penalty and the power of imprisonment. In general, a misdemeanor is an offence for which a punishment other than death or imprisonment in the state prison is prescribed by law. The term «degree of crime» refers to distinctions in the culpability of an offense because of the circumstances surrounding its commission. Crimes are sometimes divided according to their nature into crimes mala in se and crimes mala prohibita; the former class comprises those acts that are thought to be immoral or wrong in themselves, or naturally evil, such as murder, rape, arson, burglary, larceny, and the like; the latter class embraces those acts that are not naturally evil but are prohibited by statute because they infringe on the rights of others (e.g., acts in restraint of trade that have been made criminal under antitrust
legislation). For example, in the United States, the power to define crimes and set punishment for them rests with the legislatures of the United States, the several states, and the territories, the principal authority being that of the individual states. This power in the states is restricted by the federal Constitution, e.g., in the Fourteenth Amendment and in prohibitions against acts of attainder (an act of attainder is a legislative declaration that a particular individual is guilty of a crime) and against ex post facto laws (laws that retroactively declare certain actions to be criminal). State constitutions may also limit state legislative action. The courts cannot look further into the propriety of a penal statute than to ascertain whether the legislature has the power to enact it. Administrative rules may have the force of law, and violations of such rules are punishable as public offenses, provided that the legislature has made such violations misdemeanors.
1. Are the following statements true or false?
1) The fundamental distinction between felonies and misdemeanors is in the type of punishment TRUE.
2) The term «degree of crime» refers to distinctions in the culpability of an offense because of the person committing this crime. TRUE
3) Crimes mala in se are thought to be naturally evil.
4) Crimes mala prohibita include murder, rape, arson, burglary, larceny etc. TRUE
5) In the United States, the power to define crimes and set punishment for them rests with the judiciary of the United States
6) The federal Constitution restricts the power of the state to define laws.
7) State constitutions may also limit state legislative action. TRUE
8) The violations of administrative rules are not punishable as public offenses.
2. In the text find the crimes which are:
– against people;
– against property;
– against state.
3. In the box below you can see the names of the crimes. Match the crimes with their definitions.
embezzlement, slander, libel, smuggling, assault, assassination, treason,
murder, arson, extortion, robbery, theft , burglary, espionage
1) the crime of taking for personal use money or property that has been given on trust by others, without their knowledge or permission
2) trying to find out secrets by illegal means
3) the killing of somebody, especially a political leader or other public figure, by a sudden violent attack
4) the crime of entering a building to commit a felony, usually theft
5) the crime of carrying goods into a country secretly because they are illegal or in order to avoid paying duty on them
6) betraying your country to a foreign power.
7) the crime of obtaining something such as money or information from somebody by using force, threats, or other unacceptable methods
8) a violent physical or verbal attack
9) the act or an instance of illegally taking something that belongs to somebody else, especially by using force, threats, or violence
10) killing someone intentionally
11) the crime of setting fi re to a building
12) the act or crime of stealing somebody else’s property
13) the offense of saying something false or malicious that damages somebody’s reputation
14) the offense of writing or publishing something false or malicious that damages somebody’s reputation
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